The Amyloid State of Proteins: A Boon Or Bane?

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Proteins and their aggregation is significant field of research due to their association with various conformational maladies including well-known neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's (HD) diseases. Amyloids despite being given negative role for decades are also believed to play a functional role in bacteria to humans. In this review, we discuss both facets of amyloid. We have shed light on AD, which is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative disease caused by accumulation of Aβ fibrils as extracellular senile plagues. We also discuss PD caused by the aggregation and deposition of α-synuclein in form of Lewy bodies and neurites. Other amyloid-associated diseases such as HD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are also discussed. We have also reviewed functional amyloids that have various biological roles in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that includes formation of biofilm and cell attachment in bacteria to hormone storage in humans, We discuss in detail the role of Curli fibrils' in biofilm formation, chaplins in cell attachment to peptide hormones, and Pre-Melansomal Protein (PMEL) roles. The disease-related and functional amyloids are compared with regard to their structural integrity, variation in regulation, and speed of forming aggregates and elucidate how amyloids have turned from foe to friend.

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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, v. 200, p. 593-617