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Amphipathic Helix, Disorder Prediction, Hydrophobic Finger, Intrinsically Disordered Protein, Intrinsically Disordered Protein Region, Lipid Bilayer, Membrane Binding, Membrane Remodeling, Membrane Tethering, Membrane Fragmentation, Protein–protein Interactions

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Intrinsically disordered proteins and protein regions (IDPs/IDPRs) are mainly involved in signaling pathways, where fast regulation, temporal interactions, promiscuous interactions, and assemblies of structurally diverse components including membranes are essential. The autophagy pathway builds, de novo, a membrane organelle, the autophagosome, using carefully orchestrated interactions between proteins and lipid bilayers. Here, we discuss molecular mechanisms related to the protein disorder-based interactions of the autophagy machinery with membranes. We describe not only membrane binding phenomenon, but also examples of membrane remodeling processes including membrane tethering, bending, curvature sensing, and/or fragmentation of membrane organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, which is an important membrane source as well as cargo for autophagy. Summary of the current state of knowledge presented here will hopefully inspire new studies. A profound understanding of the autophagic protein–membrane interface is essential for advancements in therapeutic interventions against major human diseases, in which autophagy is involved including neurodegeneration, cancer as well as cardiovascular, metabolic, infectious, musculoskeletal, and other disorders.

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Membranes, v. 12, issue 5, art. 457