A Multitude of Signaling Pathways Associated with Alzheimer's Disease and Their Roles in AD Pathogenesis and Therapy

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The exact molecular mechanisms associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology continue to represent a mystery. In the past decades, comprehensive data were generated on the involvement of different signaling pathways in the AD pathogenesis. However, the utilization of signaling pathways as potential targets for the development of drugs against AD is rather limited due to the immense complexity of the brain and intricate molecular links between these pathways. Therefore, finding a correlation and cross-talk between these signaling pathways and establishing different therapeutic targets within and between those pathways are needed for better understanding of the biological events responsible for the AD-related neurodegeneration. For example, autophagy is a conservative cellular process that shows link with many other AD-related pathways and is crucial for maintenance of the correct cellular balance by degrading AD-associated pathogenic proteins. Considering the central role of autophagy in AD and its interplay with many other pathways, the finest therapeutic strategy to fight against AD is the use of autophagy as a target. As an essential step in this direction, this comprehensive review represents recent findings on the individual AD-related signaling pathways, describes key features of these pathways and their cross-talk with autophagy, represents current drug development, and introduces some of the multitarget beneficial approaches and strategies for the therapeutic intervention of AD.

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Medical Research Reviews, v. 41, issue 5, p. 2689-2745