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Membrane-less Organelles (Mlos), Pml-bodies, Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML) Isoforms, Acute Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP)

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In this work, we put forward a hypothesis about the decisive role of multivalent nonspecific interactions in the early stages of PML body formation. Our analysis of the PML isoform sequences showed that some of the PML isoforms, primarily PML-II, are prone to phase separation due to their polyampholytic properties and the disordered structure of their C-terminal domains. The similarity of the charge properties of the C-terminal domains of PML-II and PML-VI isoforms made it possible for the first time to detect migration of PML-VI from PML bodies to the periphery of the cell nucleus, similar to the migration of PML-II isoforms. We found a population of “small” (area less than 1 µm2) spherical PML bodies with high dynamics of PML isoforms exchange with nucleoplasm and a low fraction of immobilized proteins, which indicates their liquid state properties. Such structures can act as “seeds” of functionally active PML bodies, providing the necessary concentration of PML isoforms for the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds between PML monomers. FRAP analysis of larger bodies of toroidal topology showed the existence of an insoluble scaffold in their structure. The hypothesis about the role of nonspecific multiple weak interactions in the formation of PML bodies is further supported by the change in the composition of the scaffold proteins of PML bodies, but not their solidification, under conditions of induction of dimerization of PML isoforms under oxidative stress. Using the colocalization of ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) with TRF1, we identified APBs and showed the difference in the dynamic properties of APBs and canonical PML bodies.

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences, v. 22, issue 11, art. 5821