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Butyrophilin, Structure, Function, Immune Response, Antigen Presentation, Intrinsic Disorder

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Butyrophilins (BTNs) are a group of the moonlighting proteins, some members of which are secreted in milk. They constitute a large family of structurally similar type 1 transmembrane proteins from the immunoglobulin superfamily. Although the founding member of this family is related to lactation, participating in the secretion, formation and stabilization of milk fat globules, it may also have a cell surface receptor function. Generally, the BTN family members are known to modulate co-stimulatory responses, T cell selection, differentiation, and cell fate determination. Polymorphism of these genes was shown to be associated with the pathology of several human diseases. Despite their biological significance, structural information on human butyrophilins is rather limited. Based on their remarkable multifunctionality, butyrophilins seem to belong to the category of moonlighting proteins, which are known to contain intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs). However, the disorder status of human BTNs was not systematically investigated as of yet. The goal of this study is to fill this gap and to evaluate peculiarities of intrinsic disorder predisposition of the members of human BTN family, and to find if they have IDPRs that can be attributed to the multifunctionality of these important proteins.

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Molecules, v. 23, issue 2, art. 328