Intrinsic Disorder in Biomarkers of Insulin Resistance, Hypoadiponectinemia, and Endothelial Dysfunction Among the Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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adiponectin, E-selectin, insulin resistance, iCAM-1, intrinsically disordered protein, Type 2 diabetes, vCAM-1

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with various complications including cardiovascular diseases and related mortality. The present study aimed to analyze the abundance and functionality of intrinsically disordered regions in several biomarkers of insulin resistance, adiponectin, and endothelial dysfunction found in the T2DM patients. In fact, in comparison to controls, obese T2DM patients are known to have significantly higher levels of inter-cellular adhesion molecule (iCAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (vCAM-1), and E-selectin, whereas their adiponectin levels are relatively low. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that these selected biomarkers (iCAM-1, vCAM-1, E-selectin, and adiponectin) are characterized by the noticeable levels of intrinsic disorder propensity and high binding promiscuity, which are important features expected for proteins serving as biomarkers. Within the limit of studied groups, there is an association between insulin resistance and both hypoadiponectinemia and endothelial dysfunction.

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Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, in press