Disorder in Milk Proteins: Adipophilin and TIP47, Important Constituents of the Milk Fat Globule Membrane

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Adipophilin, perilipin-3, intrinsically disordered protein region, MFGM, MFGMome, protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications

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Milk fat globules (MFGs), which are secreted by the epithelial cells of the lactating mammary glands, account for the most of the nutritional value of milk. They are enveloped by the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a complex structure consisting of three phospholipid membrane monolayers and containing various lipids. Depending on the origin of milk, specific proteins accounts for 5–70% of the MFGM mass. Proteome of MFGMs includes hundreds of proteins, with nine major components being adipophilin, butyrophilin, cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid binding protein, lactadherin, mucin 1, mucin 15, tail-interacting protein 47 (TIP47), and xanthine oxidoreductase. Two of the MFGM components, adipophilin and TIP47, belong to the five-member perilipin family of lipid droplet proteins. Adipophilin is involved in the formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and secretion of MFGs. This protein is also related to the formation of other lipid droplets that exist in most cell types, playing an important role in the transport of lipids from ER to the surface of lipid droplets. TIP47 acts as a cytoplasmic sorting factor for mannose 6-phosphate receptors and is recruited to the MFGM. Therefore, both adipophilin and TIP47 are moonlighting proteins, each possessing several unrelated functions. This review focuses on the main functions and specific structural features of adipophilin and TIP47, analyzes similarities and differences of these proteins among different species, and describes these proteins in the context of other members of the perilipin family. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma

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Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, v. 38, issue 4, p. 1214-1229