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Phytochemicals, Nanocarriers, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, Drug Resistance

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As the world’s most prevalent cancer, breast cancer imposes a significant societal health burden and is among the leading causes of cancer death in women worldwide. Despite the notable improvements in survival in countries with early detection programs, combined with different modes of treatment to eradicate invasive disease, the current chemotherapy regimen faces significant challenges associated with chemotherapy-induced side effects and the development of drug resistance. Therefore, serious concerns regarding current chemotherapeutics are pressuring researchers to develop alternative therapeutics with better efficacy and safety. Due to their extremely biocompatible nature and efficient destruction of cancer cells via numerous mechanisms, phytochemicals have emerged as one of the attractive alternative therapies for chemotherapeutics to treat breast cancer. Additionally, phytofabricated nanocarriers, whether used alone or in conjunction with other loaded phytotherapeutics or chemotherapeutics, showed promising results in treating breast cancer. In the current review, we emphasize the anticancer activity of phytochemical-instigated nanocarriers and phytochemical-loaded nanocarriers against breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Since diverse mechanisms are implicated in the anticancer activity of phytochemicals, a strong emphasis is placed on the anticancer pathways underlying their action. Furthermore, we discuss the selective targeted delivery of phytofabricated nanocarriers to cancer cells and consider research gaps, recent developments, and the druggability of phytoceuticals. Combining phytochemical and chemotherapeutic agents with nanotechnology might have far-reaching impacts in the future.

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Cancers, v. 15, issue 4, art. 1023