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Cytokine, Tumor Necrosis Factor, S100 Protein, Protein–protein Interaction, Inflammatory Diseases

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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (anti-TNFs) represent a cornerstone of the treatment of various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and are among the most commercially successful therapeutic agents. Knowledge of TNF binding partners is critical for identification of the factors able to affect clinical efficacy of the anti-TNFs. Here, we report that among eighteen representatives of the multifunctional S100 protein family, only S100A11, S100A12 and S100A13 interact with the soluble form of TNF (sTNF) in vitro. The lowest equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for the complexes with monomeric sTNF determined using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy range from 2 nM to 28 nM. The apparent Kd values for the complexes of multimeric sTNF with S100A11/A12 estimated from fluorimetric titrations are 0.1–0.3 µM. S100A12/A13 suppress the cytotoxic activity of sTNF against Huh-7 cells, as evidenced by the MTT assay. Structural modeling indicates that the sTNF-S100 interactions may interfere with the sTNF recognition by the therapeutic anti-TNFs. Bioinformatics analysis reveals dysregulation of TNF and S100A11/A12/A13 in numerous disorders. Overall, we have shown a novel potential regulatory role of the extracellular forms of specific S100 proteins that may affect the efficacy of anti-TNF treatment in various diseases.

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences, v. 23, issue 24, art. 15956