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Transcription factor CP2c (also known as TFCP2, α-CP2, LSF, and LBP-1c) is involved in diverse ubiquitous and tissue/stage-specific cellular processes and in human malignancies such as cancer. Despite its importance, many fundamental regulatory mechanisms of CP2c are still unclear. Here, we uncover an unprecedented mechanism of CP2c degradation via a previously unidentified SUMO1/PSME3/20S proteasome pathway and its biological meaning. CP2c is SUMOylated in a SUMO1-dependent way, and SUMOylated CP2c is degraded through the ubiquitin-independent PSME3 (also known as REGγ or PA28)/20S proteasome system. SUMOylated PSME3 could also interact with CP2c to degrade CP2c via the 20S proteasomal pathway. Moreover, precisely timed degradation of CP2c via the SUMO1/PSME3/20S proteasome axis is required for accurate progression of the cell cycle. Therefore, we reveal a unique SUMO1-mediated uncanonical 20S proteasome degradation mechanism via the SUMO1/PSME3 axis involving mutual SUMO-SIM interaction of CP2c and PSME3, providing previously unidentified mechanistic insights into the roles of dynamic degradation of CP2c in cell cycle progression.

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Science Advances, v. 9, issue 4, art. eadd4969