University of South Florida (USF) M3 Publishing


This paper examines and classifies the methods of human resources (HR) empowerment and their features, as recorded in the international scientific literature. To this end, 132 scientific papers were drawn on and conclusions were reached regarding the evolution of the theory of empowerment from 1970 to 2020, through the method of Content Analysis. The concept of empowerment encompasses many dimensions that are examined separately in the international literature without an extensive grouping and codification of the methods found. This paper classifies the most common methods of HR empowerment and their respective features, so that future researchers have a comprehensive database and executives can locate and implement them effectively within organizations.



Recommended Citation

Stavrinoudis, T., & Psimoulis, M., (2021). The evolution of human resources empowerment theory: A literature review (1970–2020). In C. Cobanoglu, & V. Della Corte (Eds.), Advances in global services and retail management (pp. 1–17). USF M3 Publishing. https://www.doi.org/10.5038/9781955833035

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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