This study extended the theory of reasoned action (TRA) by including cruise involvement, safety protocols, and trust (stimulus-organism-response paradigm), and risk perception (the prospect theory), developing a theoretical framework to explore and compare Chinese repeat and potential guests' travel intentions, thus making great efforts to rebuilding consumer confidence and recover operation at this stage of the post-COVID-19. The results show that guests' intentions were positively influenced by their perceptions of safety protocols, trust, attitude, subjective norms, and cruise involvement, respectively. In contrast with previous studies, present results showed that perceived risk has a significant positive effect on the intention of both repeat guests and potential guests. Significant differences were detected between repeat and potential guests regarding safety protocols and subjective norms. The chi-square difference tests revealed the influence of cruise involvement was more positive for potential guests than for repeat guests. The findings provide an advanced guide helping academics and operators to understand underlying factors influencing guests' decision intentions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


safety protocols, trust, attitude, subjective norms, cruise involvement, perceived risk, behavioral intention

ORCID Identifiers

Lan Lu - https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5364-9207

Jinlin Zhao -

Miranda Kitterlin-Lynch - https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7333-6213



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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