All publications

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



SARS, COVID, disorder, Coronavirus, HIV, vaccine, virulence, viral shell



Several related viral shell disorder (disorder of shell proteins of viruses) models were built using a disorder predictor via AI. The parent model detected the presence of high levels of disorder at the outer shell in viruses, for which vaccines are not available. Another model found correlations between inner shell disorder and viral virulence. A third model was able to positively correlate the levels of respiratory transmission of coronaviruses (CoVs). These models are linked together by the fact that they have uncovered two novel immune evading strategies employed by the various viruses. The first involve the use of highly disordered “shape-shifting” outer shell to prevent antibodies from binding tightly to the virus thus leading to vaccine failure. The second usually involves a more disordered inner shell that provides for more efficient binding in the rapid replication of viral particles before any host immune response. This “Trojan horse” immune evasion often backfires on the virus, when the viral load becomes too great at a vital organ, which leads to death of the host. Just as such virulence entails the viral load to exceed at a vital organ, a minimal viral load in the saliva/mucus is necessary for respiratory transmission to be feasible. As for the SARS-CoV-2, no high levels of disorder can be detected at the outer shell membrane (M) protein, but some evidence of correlation between virulence and inner shell (nucleocapsid, N) disorder has been observed. This suggests that not only the development of vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, unlike HIV, HSV and HCV, is feasible but its attenuated vaccine strain can either be found in nature or generated by genetically modifying N.

Rights Information

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

Citation / Publisher Attribution

Feasibility of the Vaccine Development for SARS-CoV-2 and other Viruses Using the Shell Disorder Analysis, in R. B. Altman, A. K. Dunker, L. Hunter, M. D Ritchie, T. Murray & T. E Klein (Eds.), Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing, World Scientific, p. 143-153