Tropical Ecology and Conservation [Monteverde Institute]

Alternative Title

Dos polinizadores de Ficus tuerckheimii (Moraceae): la competencia del parasitismo y la competencia entre especies dentro de un mutualismo obligado


Marissa Jones



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Publication Date

May 2007


The pollinating and non-pollinating wasp fauna of the strangler fig, Ficus tuerckheimii, provide a unique suite of biological relationships in which to observe potential species interactions. Nearly all of the 750 fig species worldwide are pollinated by a single, species-specific agaonid wasp. Pollinated by two congeneric species of fig wasps, Ficus tuerckheimii is a rare exception. I investigated the relationship between the two foundress pollinators as well as the cohort of pollinating and non-pollinating (interloper) wasps that emerge from fig syconia on one tree in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The pollinating species appeared to colonize syconia randomly (R2 = 0.0126, F = 1.234, df = 1.97, p = 0.269). Although interloper wasps were significantly less abundant than pollinating species, there was no association between interlopers and either pollinator or fig seed production (ANOVA, F = 15.568, p < 0.001; LSD, p < 0.001). This study provides evidence to suggest that the overall strength of species interactions in the fig-pollinator-interloper system may not be as strong as ecological models suggest.


Las avispas polinizadoras y no polinizadoras de la especie de higuerón Ficus tuerckheimii ofrecen una oportunidad única para observar las interacciones entre especies. Casi todas las 750 especies de higuerones en el mundo están polinizadas por la especie de avispa de la familia Agaonidae. Ficus tuerckheimii es una de las excepciones raras de especies de higuerones, porque es polinizada por dos especies de avispas congénitas. Yo investigue la relación entre las dos polinizadoras y el grupo de avispas no polinizadoras que salen de sicionios de un individuo de F. tuerckheimii en Monteverde, Costa Rica.


Agaonidae, Ficus (Plants), Parasitism, CIEE Spring 2007

Palabras claves

Ficus (Plantas), Parasitismo, CIEE Primavera 2007


13 pages

Geographic Location

Monteverde (Puntarenas, Costa Rica)

Holding Location

Monteverde Institute


English; Spanish

Media Type



Digital Only





Two Agaonid pollinators of Ficus tuerckheimii (Moraceae): parasitism and interspecific competition within an obligate mutualism, May 2007



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