Intraventricular Hemorrhage Secondary to Intranidal Aneurysm Rupture—Successful Management by Arteriovenous Malformation Embolization Followed by Intraventricular Tissue Plasminogen Activator: Case Report

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Background And Importance: Intraventricular hemorrhage related to arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Intraventricular tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been used to treat spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage. We demonstrate the successful application of endovascular occlusion to seal the rupture site of an AVM followed by intraventricular tPA.

Clinical Presentation: A 32-year-old woman presented with a right frontoparietal parasagittal AVM abutting the motor cortex. The AVM was diagnosed when the patient was 13 years old, and she initially underwent conservative management. At the age of 30, the patient suffered an intracranial hemorrhage, leaving her with left hemiparesis. After rehabilitation, the patient regained ambulation; however, she remained spastic and hyperreflexic on the left side. Two years after her major hemorrhage, she presented for elective treatment of her AVM. The patient was advised to undergo staged embolization before surgical resection of her AVM. The initial embolization was uneventful. A second embolization was complicated by intraventricular hemorrhage and coma. The patient was treated with placement of an external ventricular drain followed by embolization of intranidal aneurysm. After embolization of the intranidal aneurysm the ruptured, the patient was treated with intraventricular tPA. The patient had rapid clearance of the intraventricular hemorrhage and significant improvement in her neurological examination, following commands 24 hours later and returning almost to baseline.

Conclusion: This case demonstrates the feasibility of treating AVM-related intraventricular hemorrhage with tPA if the rupture source can be confidently sealed interventionally. This strategy can be lifesaving but needs further study to ensure its safety.

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Neurosurgery, v. 68, issue 2, p. E581-E586