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Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-β, cord blood serum, human umbilical cord blood cell, soluble amyloid precursor protein α, tau

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related disorder that affects cognition. Our previous studies showed that the neuroprotective fragment of amyloid procurer protein (APP) metabolite, soluble APPα (sAPPα), interferes with β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, β-secretase) cleavage and reduces amyloid-β (Aβ) generation. In an attempt to identify approaches to restore sAPPα levels, we found that human cord blood serum (CBS) significantly promotes sAPPα production compared with adult blood serum (ABS) and aged blood serum (AgBS) in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing wild-type human APP. Interestingly, CBS selectively mediated the α-secretase cleavage of human neuron-specific recombinant APP695 in a cell-free system independent of tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE; a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 [ADAM17]) and ADAM. Subsequently, using 3-step chromatographic separation techniques (i.e., diethylaminoethanol, size-exclusion, and ion-exchange chromatography), we purified and ultimately identified a CBS-specific fraction with enhanced α-secretase catalytic activity (termed αCBSF) and found that αCBSF has more than 3,000-fold increased α-secretase catalytic activity compared with the original pooled CBS. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of αCBSF markedly increased cerebral sAPPα levels together with significant decreases in cerebral Aβ production and abnormal tau (Thr231) phosphorylation compared with the AgBS fraction with enhanced α-secretase activity (AgBSF) treatment in triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTg-AD) mice. Moreover, AgBSF administered intraperitoneally to transgenic mice with five familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations (5XFAD) via an osmotic mini pump for 6 weeks (wk) ameliorated β-amyloid plaques and reversed cognitive impairment measures. Together, our results propose the necessity for further study aimed at identification and characterization of α-secretase in CBS for novel and effective AD therapy.

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Cell Transplantation, v. 27, issue 3, p. 438-455

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