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Alzheimer's disease, betaine, vitamin B12, folate, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), total homocysteine (tHcy)

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In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, accompanied by substantial economic and emotional costs. During 2015, more than 15 million family members who provided care to AD patients had an estimated total cost of 221 billion dollars. Recent studies have shown that elevated total plasma levels of homocysteine (tHcy), a condition known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), is a risk factor for AD. HHcy is associated with cognitive decline, brain atrophy, and dementia; enhances the vulnerability of neurons to oxidative injury; and damages the blood–brain barrier. Many therapeutic supplements containing vitamin B12 and folate have been studied to help decrease tHcy to a certain degree. However, a therapeutic cocktail approach with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, methyl B12, betaine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have not been studied. This novel approach may help target multiple pathways simultaneously to decrease tHcy and its toxicity substantially.

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Cell Medicine, v. 10, p. 1-6

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