University of South Florida (USF) M3 Publishing


The aim of the present study is to analyze the frequency and development of collocations found in the essays of Turkish learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) across different proficiency levels. The learners were enrolled in the English Preparatory School of the School of Foreign Languages at a government university in Turkey. The study compared 25 intermediate, 25 upper-intermediate, and 25 low-advanced level EFL learners in terms of using adjective+noun and verb+noun collocations in essays and determined whether or not there would be an improvement in using such collocations as the learners’ proficiency developed over time. The results of a multivariate analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference among the groups with respect to the use of collocations and a statistically significant difference between intermediate and upper-intermediate students as well as between intermediate and low-advanced students when the adjective+noun collocations were considered. Although the students seemed to improve their use of verb+noun collocations as their proficiency level increased, no statistically significant differences were observed among the proficiency levels.



Recommended Citation

Koban Koc, D. (2021). Frequency and development of collocations in Turkish EFL learners’ essays. In W. B. James, C. Cobanoglu, & M. Cavusoglu (Eds.), Advances in global education and research (Vol. 4, pp. 1–10). USF M3 Publishing. https://www.doi.org/10.5038/9781955833042

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Creative Commons License
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