Alternative Title

NCKRI Symposium 2: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst



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Publication Date

May 2013


pg(s) 299-309 Agricultural development in the Saraburi Province of Central Thailand has increased the demand for groundwater resources. Hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken by Department of Groundwater Resources (DGR) to identify potential zones of groundwater in the karstified limestone of the Saraburi group. The area is located 120 km north of Bangkok between the cities of Saraburi and Pak Chong in the south, Lopburi to the west, Chai Badan and Nong Pong to the north, and Nakhon Ratchasima to the east. It covers the following districts: Amphoe Pack Chong, Nakhon Ratchasima Province; Amphoe Muang Muak Lek, Khangnoi, Phaputabat, Wong Muang and Chalormphrakiat in Saraburi Province; and Amphoe Moung, Lamsonthi, Phatananikom, Thaluang and Chaibadan in Lopburi Province (Figure 1). The topography is characterized by mountain ranges, karstic plateaus, and rolling hills of low to medium relief, with low lands in between. The mountainous ridge elevation reaches over 800 m above sea level (ASL), karstic plateaus are developed between 300 and 500 m ASL, and the low lands are at about 100 m ASL. In the karstic plateaus and mountains areas, springs, caves, and dry stream beds exist. In dry periods, some streams in low land areas are dry, but the large rivers continue flowing. Tropical climate (Monsoon type) with two distinct seasons is characteristic of this area. The dry season begins in October and ends in May, followed by a monsoon season between June and September. Annual rainfall ranges between 1,500 and 2,000 mm and temperature ranges between 20.00C and 40.70C. The area is underlain by the limestone of the Saraburi Group of Permian age. The limestone is exposed as a chain of hills, ridges, and occasionally as mounds which create classic 'tower karst' scenery. The rainforests, excessive rainfall and widely variable climatic conditions caused a karst landscape and cave-forming environment to develop, with streams draining into the limestones from mountain catchments. In this area, the mature karst is locally fringed by tall cliffs that overlook valleys and closed basins. The area underlain by limestone is extensive and rainfall is abundant. Therefore karstification potential exceeds 200m vertically. Exokarst landforms are well represented. Various types of karrens, tsingi, small- to medium- sized sinkholes, sinking streams, and closed depressions were identified during site investigation. A dye study performed in October 2012 indicated the hydraulic connection between a sinking stream and Tham Lumphini Suan Hin Spring, and a water supply well (Well 114) located 300 meters southwest of the spring. Based on the dye study, the protection area for the Well 114 and the spring also includes the closed depressions. Open Access - Permission by Publisher See Extended description for more information.


Conference Proceeding


University of South Florida





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