Creator

Files

Download

Download Full Text (2.3 MB)

Publisher

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Publication Date

January 2005

Abstract

TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER.......................................................................................................................... ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ....................................................................................................... iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................ xi 1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION .......................................................................... 1.1-1 1.1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 1.1-1 1.2 Description and Taxonomy .................................................................................. 1.2-1 1.3 Population Status and Distribution..................................................................... 1.3-1 1.4 Habitat ................................................................................................................... 1.4-1 1.5 Life History and Ecology...................................................................................... 1.5-1 1.6 Threats ................................................................................................................... 1.6-1 Water Quality Physical and Chemical Properties of Water Quality Potentially Affecting the Barton Springs Salamander.................................................................................... 1.6-2 Dissolved oxygen....................................................................................................1.6-2 Conductivity............................................................................................................1.6-2 Supersaturation and gas bubble trauma .................................................................. 1.6-3 Pollutants and Contaminants Potentially Affecting the Barton Springs Salamander ................................................................................................................... 1.6-5 Sediments................................................................................................................ 1.6-5 Nutrients.................................................................................................................. 1.6-7 Heavy metals...........................................................................................................1.6-8 Pesticides................................................................................................................. 1.6-8 Petroleum hydrocarbons and PAH's....................................................................... 1.6-9 Factors Influencing Concentrations of Pollutants and Contaminants at Barton Springs ........................................................................................................ 1.6-10 Impervious cover and storm water runoff............................................................. 1.6-10 Construction activities ..........................................................................................1.6-12 Wastewater discharge ...........................................................................................1.6-12 Transportation infrastructure ................................................................................1.6-13 Hazardous materials spills ....................................................................................1.6-14 Measures for Minimizing Degradation of Water Quality in the Barton Springs Watershed ...................................................................................................... 1.6-16 Impervious cover limitations ................................................................................ 1.6-16 Buffer zones ..........................................................................................................1.6-17 Buffer zones for riparian areas.............................................................................. 1.6-17 Buffer zones for stream headwaters...................................................................... 1.6-18 Buffer zones for environmentally sensitive areas................................................. 1.6-19 Compact, clustered developments ........................................................................ 1.6-19 Best management practices................................................................................... 1.6-20 Water Quantity............................................................................................................ 1.6-22 Surface Habitat Modification...................................................................................... 1.6-24 1.7 Conservation Measures ........................................................................................ 1.7-1 Efforts to protect the Barton Springs watershed........................................................... 1.7-1 Land Acquisition and Conservation Easements ..................................................... 1.7-1 Balcones Canyonlands Conservation Plan (BCCP)................................................ 1.7-1 Water Quality Protection Recommendations.......................................................... 1.7-2 Edwards Aquifer Rules Optional Measures............................................................ 1.7-2 Regional Water Planning ........................................................................................ 1.7-3 City of Austin and Texas Department of Transportation National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits................................... 1.7-3 City of Austin's Action Plan to Address Top Ten Pollutant Sources..................... 1.7-3 Efforts to Protect Surface Habitat ................................................................................. 1.7-4 City of Austin's HCP.............................................................................................. 1.7-4 Habitat Restoration .................................................................................................1.7-4 Catastrophic Spill Response and Salamander Rescue ............................................ 1.7-5 Captive Breeding .......................................................................................................... 1.7-5 Salamander Monitoring................................................................................................ 1.7-6 Water Quality Monitoring............................................................................................. 1.7-6 Education and Outreach............................................................................................... 1.7-7 2.0 RECOVERY................................................................................................................ 2.1-1 2.1 Recovery Strategy ................................................................................................. 2.1-1 Protection of Water Quality .......................................................................................... 2.1-1 Avoidance and Remediation of Catastrophic Spills ..................................................... 2.1-1 Avoidance and Minimization of Chronic Water Quality Degradation......................... 2.1-2 Minimizing Effects from Expanding Urbanization ................................................ 2.1-2 Impervious cover limits .................................................................................... 2.1-3 Buffer zones for streams and other sensitive environmental features (caves, sinkholes, fissures, springs) .................................................................. 2.1-3 Compact, clustered developments .................................................................... 2.1-4 Structural water quality controls....................................................................... 2.1-5 Other strategies to reduce pollutant loads......................................................... 2.1-5 Development of a Land Preservation Strategy ....................................................... 2.1-5 Reduction of Pollutant Loads from Existing Development.................................... 2.1-5 Reduction of Pollutant Loads from Transportation Infrastructure ......................... 2.1-6 Sustain Water Quantity at Barton Springs .................................................................... 2.1-6 BS/EACD Proposed HCP....................................................................................... 2.1-6 Manage Local Surface Habitat...................................................................................... 2.1-7 Maintain a Captive Population for Research and Restoration Purposes....................... 2.1-7 Develop and Implement Education and Outreach Programs........................................ 2.1-8 2.2 Goal, Objectives, and Criteria ............................................................................. 2.2-1 2.3 Recovery Program Outline .................................................................................. 2.3-1 2.4 Narrative of Recovery Actions............................................................................. 2.4-1 3.0 LITERATURE CITED .............................................................................................. 3.0-1 4.0 IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE ......................................................................... 4.0-1 APPENDICES Appendix A - Degradation of selected water quality constituents at Barton Springs.......... A-1 Appendix B - Median concentrations and densities of selected water quality constituents during the rising and falling stages of stormflow for four development classifications within the Barton Springs watershed .....................................................................................B-1 Appendix C - Comments on the Draft Recovery Plan and Responses .................................C-1 Open Access - Permission by Publisher See Extended description for more information.

Keywords

Barton Springs (Austin, Texas, United States), Eliza Spring (Travis County, Texas, United States), Old Mill Spring (Travis County, Texas, United States), Upper Barton Spring (Travis County, Texas, United States), Biology

Description

1 online resource

Subject: topical

Biology

Language

English

Type

Text

Genre

Reports, Technical

Format

application/pdf

Identifier

K26-00484

Share

COinS
 

Rights Statement

In Copyright