Excavation in the Deszczowa Cave (Kroczyckie Rocks, Częstochowa Upland, Central Poland)
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Interdisciplinary excavation undertaken in the Deszczowa Cave and the Upper Rock Shelter between 1989 and 1997 have yielded Palaeolithic artefacts and abundant vertebrate fauna. Sediment sequence consists of 11 layers marked from the bottom to the top I–XI. Layer IV probably represents the warmest period due to important amount of organic carbon, phosphates and iron compounds. Generally, the lower part of the section (layers I–VI) could be correlated with the Early Vistulian and/or Interplenivistulian. Loess layer VIII originated during cold and dry period and it probably corresponds to the Upper Pleniglacial. The fossil fauna of snails and vertebrates belong to ca. 130 species. In the almost whole profile (except of layers X and XI), the most abundant are steppe–tundra species (65–76%) accompanied by forest faunas (especialy in layers VI and XI, 22% and 29%, respectively), and species connected with water or moist environments (10–23%). Three Middle Palaeolithic cultural horizons have been distinguished in layers IV–VI, Aurignacian assemblage in layer VIIa, Epigravettian one in layer VIIIa, and Late Palaeolithic or Early Mesolithic at the surface of the layer X.
Cyrek, Krzysztof Jan; Nadachowski, Adam; Madeyska, Teresa; and Bocheñski, Zygmunt, "Excavation in the Deszczowa Cave (Kroczyckie Rocks, Częstochowa Upland, Central Poland)" (2000). KIP Articles. 7732.