Sleeping Cave Selection, Activity Pattern and Time Budget of White-Headed Langurs
International Journal of Primatology
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We describe the activity patterns and time budgets of white-headed langurs that were confined to about 4 km2 of Longlin habitat in Fusui County, Guangxi Province, China. Between February and December 1996, we observed 6 langur groups monthly via group focal sampling and continuously recording the behavior of a focal group. Our results indicate that the langur groups selected stone caves on cliffs as sleeping sites. The daily activity pattern outside caves had 8 stages: (1) leaving the cave in the early morning; (2) moving and resting; (3) morning feeding; (4) moving a long distance; (5) resting at noon; (6) afternoon feeding; (7) moving back to the cave, and (8) entering the cave. Over the year, langurs spent a daily average of about 11.5 h outside caves and about 12.5 h inside caves. Moving accounted for 7% (spring), 7% (summer-autumn) and 13% (winter) of the time budget, and langurs spent 9% (summer-autumn) and 14% (spring) to 20% (winter) of their time feeding. Resting accounted for 79% of the time budget in spring, 84% in summer-autumn, and 57% in winter. Sunbathing only occurred in winter and accounted for about 10% of the time budget. One-way ANOVA and multiple range tests demonstrated that time budgets differed significantly among seasons. Langurs spent significantly more time feeding and moving in winter than in spring and summer-autumn, but significantly less time resting in winter than in spring and summer-autumn.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Huang, Chengming; Wei, Fuwen; and Li, Ming, "Sleeping Cave Selection, Activity Pattern and Time Budget of White-Headed Langurs" (2003). KIP Articles. 6122.