Upwelling Flow Velocity Preferences of Captive Adult San Marcos Salamanders


Joe N. Fries


Link to Full Text

Download Full Text

Publication Date

April 2002


San Marcos salamanders Eurycea nana probably lay their eggs within spring openings that presumably have varied flow velocities. To test for a possible preference in flow velocity, adult San Marcos salamanders were placed in systems with access to tubes with upwelling flow velocities of 1 and 5 cm/s. Their locations were observed during daylight hours and were considered to reflect flow velocity preference. Salamanders seldom changed location during the study. There was no difference in flow‐velocity preference between males and females. Salamanders avoided tubes with 5 cm/s upwelling flow velocity and displayed a slight preference (one of four comparisons significantly different) for tubes with 1 cm/s upwelling flow velocity over not being in tubes at all. Salamanders occupying tubes tended to stay near the bottom. It is recommended that captive breeding systems for San Marcos salamanders should include some substrate (e.g., limestone rocks) through which water flows (some in an upwelling manner) with a velocity of about 1 cm/s.

Document Type



North American Journal of Aquaculture, Vol. 64, no. 2 (2002-04).