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by Dwain K. Butler US. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, P.O. Box 631, Vicksburg, MS 39180. Abstract: Microgravimetric and gravity gradient surveying techniques are applicable to the detection and delineation of shallow subsurface cavities and tunnels. Two case histories of the use of these techniques to site investigations in karst regions are presented. In the first case history, the delineation of a shallow (~ 10 m deep), airfilled cavity system by a microgravimetric survey is demonstrated. Also, application of familiar ring and center point techniques produces derivative maps which demonstrate (1) the use of second derivative techniques to produce a "residual" gravity map, and (2) the ability of first derivative techniques to resolve closely spaced or complex subsurface features. In the second case history, a deeper (~30 m deep), water-filled cavity system is adequately detected by a microgravity survey. Results of an interval (tower) vertical gradient survey along a profile line are presented in the second case history; this vertical gradient survey successfully detected shallow (less than 6 m) anomalous features such as limestone pinnacles and clay pockets, but the data are too "noisy" to permit detection of the vertical gradient anomaly caused by the cavity system. Interval horizontal gradients were deter- mined along the same profile line at the second site, and a vertical gradient profile is determined from the horizontal gradient profile by a Hilbert transform technique. The measured horizontal gradient profile and the computed vertical gradient profile compare quite well with corresponding profiles calculated for a two-dimensional model of the cavity system. Open Access See Extended description for more information.
U.S., Geological Survey, "Microgravimetric and gravity gradient techniques for detection of subsurface cavities" (1984). KIP Articles. 5787.