Alternative Title

Cave systems in reef limestone and calcarenites of late Cretaceous age in the Crags of Garagartza and contiguous outcrops: Crag of Naparraitz and Orobe Mountain.



Download Full Text (7.0 MB)

Publication Date

September 2014


This paper describes a set of natural cavities, located in litosomes of reef limestones and calcarenites, which form a W-E band extending about Southern Gipuzkoa end (Otzaurte-Altzania region) for penetrating Navarra (Orobe limestone mount, NW Alsasua). The age of these rocks is Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous). The top of the outcrops form prominent crags which constitute residual relief bluffs. In them there are cave systems which are witnesses of a paleokarst, rejuvenated and partially stripped of their sedimentary fills by the current karst cycle. Accessible caves show features of a long polyphase evolution, with successive phases of speleogenesis, conduits clogging, re-excavation, formation of speleothems, surface erosion and sinking of the underground drainage, to its current configuration. Accessible caves have sets of cave fauna, with endemic troglobitic species of these outcrops and other features of paleontological and anthropological interest. The paper describes the caves studied on the Crag of Paparraitz (the easternmost of the Crags of Garagartza, Gizpuzkoa) and comparable examples of the top of Mount Orobe (Navarra).


Speleology, Karst, Caves, Underground biology, Paleokarst, Hydrogeology, Anthropology, Palaeontology

Document Type



Spanish and English





To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.