Treatise on Geomorphology
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Relict phreatic caves, in hanging positions within a glacial topography, pose an enigma with respect to the speleogenetic interpretation. A glacier ice mass may provide liquid water and create caves anywhere in the adjacent rock, making glacier ice-contact as well as interglacial, meteoric speleogenesis feasible. The problem is reviewed with relevant glacier rheology, hydrology, and chemistry. The glacial environment was certainly able to overprint and widen already existing caves (sensu lato speleogenesis), while the full evolution of caves from tight fractures (sensu stricto speleogenesis) was slow and inefficient (about 1/40) as compared to nonglacial conditions.
Cave Karst, Glacier Ice-Contact Speleogenesis, Kinetics, Pleistocene, Stripe Karst
Vol. 6 (2013-03-05).
Lauritzen, S. E. and Skoglund, R. Ø., "Treatise on Geomorphology" (2013). KIP Articles. 5610.