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Publication Date

January 1995


Romania, Geology




Radulescu, C. Editorial. pp.7-8. TAK Reviews Tenu, A. Davidescu, F. Environmental isotopic studies in karstic calcareous areas of Romania. pp. 9-24. The application of the environmental isotope techniques in the study of karstic areas might offer significant contributions concerning the origin and genesis of the groundwaters, underground hydrodynamic parameters and vulnerability to pollution. After a brief theoretical approach the results obtained by these techniques for Oradea-Felix hydrogeothermal system, Wallachian Platform, Domogled hydrostructure and South Dobrogea, are synthetically presented. TAK Articles Lauritzen, S.-E. Onac, B., P. Uranium series dating of some speleothems from Romania. pp. 25-36. In order to test the potential for Uranium-series disequilibrium dating of speleothems in Romania, nine dating analyses were performed on eight samples from various caves in Apuseni Mountains and Dobrogea. Low to moderate uranium concentrations, good chemical yields, and few samples with significant 232Th contamination, provided reliable data in most cases. The dates range between 22 kyr up to 188 kyr, which is in general accordance with speleotheme chronozones known from other areas, and with known periods of ameliorated climates during the upper Pleistocene. These preliminary dates also provide erosion rate estimates for fluvial valley incision of 0.5 to 0.6 m/kyr in the Crisul Repede basin. Attempts to date a hominid footprint from Vârtop Glacier cave, suggest so far a maximum age of about 22 kyr. Hercman, H., Lauritzen, S.-E. Glazek, J. Uranium-series dating of speleothems from Nied?wiedzia and Radochowska caves, Sudetes (Poland). pp. 37-48. 14 new uranium series dates were performed on speleothem samples from Nied?wiedzia (Bear Cave) and Radochowska caves in the Polish Sudetes, and are presented together with other two previous dates. All samples were low in uranium concentration, inducing relatively large errors in the dates. The oldest date from Nied?wiedzia cave (180, +21/-17 ka) provides strong evidence for the antiquity of the cave and for the fact that the cave was drained above the watertable as early as oxygen isotope stage 7. Dating of flowstone above the bone-bearing deposits in Nied?wiedzia cave has so far been unsuccessful, and the deposits still provide an interesting geochronological challenge. Martin, P. Les travertins sont-ils les dépôts corrélatifs d'hydrosystèmes karstiques ? Le cas des bassins versants provençaux (France). pp. 49-62. Des études récentes faites en Provence sur des édifices travertineux nous ont conduit à envisager ces constructions comme des systèmes et à proposer l'idée de système travertineux. Ces systèmes travertineux reçoivent en particulier des flux modulés par des réseaux de drainage (réseaux souterrains, réseaux fluviatiles) exportateurs de matière et perturbent la réalisation d'un profil longitudinal d'équilibre dynamique. En conséquence il semble que l'évolution d'un aquifère d'un état non?karstifie à un état karstifié puisse conduire au recoupement puis à la disparition du système travertineux qui lui est associé. La description de ces relations entre systèmes exportateurs d'amont et systèmes accumulateurs d'aval nous conduit à qualifier cette association de géosystème karstique. Le système travertineux est régulé par les interactions existant entre ses sous-systèmes (barrage-vasque; flux-biocénose) et par le fonctionnement et l'évolution des réseaux de drainage exportateurs de matière. Le géosystème karstique est régulé à un niveau supérieur par le système morphoclimatique, par la géodynamique interne et par la société. Onac, B., P., Ghergari, L. Gàl, A. Crystallographical studies on gypsum crystals in Ponoras Cave (Padurea Craiului Mountains,Romania). pp. 63-68. About 200 gypsum crystals formed within a black clay deposit in Ponoras cave were analyzed with respect to their crystallographical features. The most developed faces are those of pinacoid and prism. Plotting the number of crystallographical forms per crystal against the frequency of combinations we found a bi-model curve characterizing two generations of gypsum crystals that have been grown in different conditions. Istvan, D., Manescu, S. Jurca, M. Study on moonmilk from Pestera Mare, Piatra Molosnaia (Repedea, Maramures Mountains, Romania). pp. 69-74. The moonmilk was investigated by using a complex study, including complete chemical analysis, spectral analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and other chemical analyses. The purpose was to analyze the water content, the way it is eliminated and to identify the factors which favor this unusual capacity to retain the water. The analyzed moonmilk has a calcite character (about 80% is crystallized calcite) with a significant presence of aluminium silicate gel (clay gel). The water retaining capacity is due to both the porous network of anhydrous calcite in the moonmilk, and the retaining capacity of the clay gel. The clay gel is probably an exokarstic waste product originating in the levigation of the soil that covers the limestones. The analyzed moonmilk is a recent product deposited quasi-synchronously with its sampling. Onac, B., P., Bengeanu, M., Botez, M. Zih, J. Preliminary report on the mineralogy of Pestera din Valea Rea. pp. 75-80. From a mineralogical point of view, Pestera din Valea Rea presents a great interest. Gypsum is unique in what concerns its type of occurrence and abundance. Gypsum speleothems (flower, crystal, rope, snow, hair, cotton, crust and stalagmite) from Pestera din Valea Rea exhibit features never described before in a Romanian cave. The most typical speleothems are those consisting of gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, yet some may include carbonate minerals (calcite, aragonite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, dolomite, rhodochrosite, malachite) and phosphates (brushite, barrandite, bobierrite, vivianite, wavellite). Quartz, periclase, kaolinite, dickite, nacrite and illite have also been identified in various speleothems. Silvestru, E., Tamas, T. Fratila, G. Preliminary data on the hydrogeology of karst terrains around the springs of Somesul Cald river (Bihor-Vladeasa Montains, Romania). pp. 81-90. Six karst drainages have been investigated in the western section of the Somesul Cald Graben. Both fluoresceine tracings and pH, temperature and conductivity measurements have been performed. The resulting data provided the grounds for delimiting of subterranean hydrographic basins and for several considerations concerning karstogenesis in the area. Constantinescu, T. Le karst de type Movilé (Mangalia, Dobrogea de Sud, Roumanie). pp. 91-96. L'interaction de 4 facteurs géosystémiques principaux (la circulation des eaux souterraines thermominérales, la présence des calcaires lumachelliques et oolithiques sarmatiens, le climat aride et la morphologie de plateau bas situé au voisinage de la Mer Noire), a déterminé le développement d'un karst à part. Afin de souligner son originalité, l'auteur considère que la dénomination "karst de type Movilé" est la plus opportune. Mogosanu, D. Cretaceous paleokarst in the Moesian Platform (Romania). pp. 97-102. The sedimentary cover of the Moesian Platform is divided into four major cycles of sedimentation, separated by three major unconformities. These unconformities correspond to emersion periods of the Moesian domain, during which the exogene factors altered the earth crust, which resulted in a topography specific to each geological period. As the Early Cretaceous deposits of the platform are mostly carbonate, the resulting topography is of karstic type. This assertion is supported by information provided by drillholes. Martin, P. Les formes fluviatiles du massif karstique de la Sainte Baume (Bouches du Rhône, Var, France). pp. 103-116. La Sainte Baume est le massif de la Basse Provence carbonatée où le karst est le mieux développé: 180 cavités dont l'aven du Petit St Cassien (-321 m et 9,3 km), le réseau Sabre (4,3 km) et la grotte de la Castelette (grande salle de 4150 m2). En surface des réseaux fluviatiles drainent ce massif. Pour vérifier si l'existence de réseaux souterrains désorganise le drainage superficiel, on réalise une analyse morphologique des bassins versants: dimension fractale des périmètres, modélisation des talwegs principaux par une double exponentielle, étude de la relation entre la surface du bassin versant et la longueur du talweg principal, détermination des relations de Horton et calcul de la dimension fractale du réseau du Caramy par différentes méthodes. Cette analyse montre que les formes fluviatiles du massif de la Sainte Baume sont très classiques et capables d'assurer un drainage autonome en surface. La réalisation d'un drainage souterrain ne désorganise donc pas le drainage superficiel. Nous pensons que cette situation n'est pas un état exceptionnel ou transitoire. Elle correspond plutôt à un état habituel et stable caractérisé par une complémentarité de fonctionnement. Balogh, A. Hydrodynamical test preparation of karstic reservoirs for Chinese request. pp. 117-122. In Hungarian petrol industrial practice several methods were developed for testing hydrodynamical properties of fluid reservoirs. In present article we briefly describe two types of testing methods, which are remarkable for karstology experts. One of them is Pulse Interference Test and the other is Cavern Volume Test, both of them developed in our company. Pulse test is hydrodynamical examination method of fluid reservoirs surrounded by wells. With help of pulse test and analysis the existence of flow connection between test wells and the value of flow parameters can be determined. We run several pulse tests to understand karstic water supply system of Hévíz-lake in Hungary, where water production of bauxite mining may influence the rate of inflow and temperature of that thermal water. This testing method is also useful in water inrush preventing, because unknown caverns can be suspected between the wells, from the deviation of value of flow parameters. It is very important to estimate the volume of a cavern filled up by water in underground mining area, because water inrush preventive operations can be designed on the basis of known cavern volume determined by Cavern Volume Test. Ekmekçi, M. Effects of Quaternary tectonic activities on karstification pattern in Ceyhan-Berke dam-site, SE Turkey. pp. 123-128. The Berke Project consists of construction of a dam and a hydropower plant on Ceyhan river running at the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. There has been considerable debate on the intensity of karstification and its subsurface distribution at the damsite, a knowledge which is of great importance for grouting curtain design. Two different types of karstification were identified in the area: normal karst and thermal karst. Normal karst, progressing from the surface downward along the major faults has not been well developed. The karstification base related to normal karst is higher than the mechanical erosion base of the main river valley. Tectonic activities that had been efective during Late Pliocene until Late Quaternary had two fold effect on the groundwater system in the region. Firstly, in some places it caused fracture eruption of basalt during Plio-Quaternary. This, consequently, had been a trigger for thermal spring occurrence. Thermal karst has therefore progressed upward from great depths, enlarging fractures to form thermal karst conduits. Secondly, the tectonic activity has continued until Late Quaternary and formerly developed karst conduits have been dissected due to dislocations. The resulted karst pattern is observed as randomly scattered, usually air or water filled cavities. This type of karst encourages construction of the dam with regard to karst problems. However, tectonic activity should be regarded as a more serious, potential risk rather than karstic leakages. Mitrofan, H., Mafteiu, M., Povara, I. Mitrutiu, M. Electrometric investigations on the supply channels of Hercules spring (Romania). pp. 129-136. The thermal spring Hercules at Baile Herculane is fed by a karstic conduit, inaccessible to direct exploration. The "mise à la masse" resistivity method has been used in order to trace the path of the karstic conduit, presumably a carrier of rainfall originating, cooling water. A self potential (SP) survey has been additionally performed, in an attempt to identify hot water upflows. Stevanovic, Z. Dragisic, V. Some cases of accidental karst water pollution in the Serbian Carpathians. pp. 137-144. Karst aquifers in Serbia are one of the main sources for water supply. The quality of karst water is generally very good (1st and 2nd class for drinking). A good natural predisposition for the protection of karst is the predominantly mountainous relief and uninhabited catchment areas. The results of "tracing" experiments with ground waters indicate that under convenient conditions the pollution may migrate as far as 10 km of rectilinear distance as early as 24 hours. Few cases of accidental chemical and bacteriological pollution of karstic aquifer was registred during the last 15 years: e.g. influence of copper mining activity in the zone of Bor and Majdanpek, radioactive contamination of aquifer in Golubacke Mts., and hydric epidemics happened in several small towns in Serbia ( Boljevac, Sjenica, Dimitrovgrad). The complexity of conditions of protection in karst area (especially cavern and channel dimensions and high filtration rapidity) often requires an introduction of several zones and belts of sanitary protection. Rotaru, A., Bulgar, A. Povara, I. L'étude hydrodynamique du système karstique de Motru Sec-Baia de Arama (Roumanie). pp. 145-156. Le système karstique de la zone de Motru Sec-Baia de Arama est un système complexe, avec une alimentation à la fois diffuse par précipitation et organisée par les pertes situées dans le lit de la rivière de Motru Sec. La décharge du système se produit par la ligne de sources de la zone de Baia de Arama. Les traçages ont prouvé la continuité des dépôts calcaires de l 'Autochtone Danubien de même que du système karstique au dessous de la Nappe Gétique. L'étude du système karstique a été réalisée par la méthodologie de l 'analyse systémique mise au point et développée dans le cadre du Laboratoire Souterrain de Moulis (France). Les résultats obtenus en utilisant cette méthode sur les hydrogrammes de sources apportent des renseignements sur la complexité du système. Cette complexité se traduit par un "effet mémoire" important et une faible corrélation avec les précipitations. Cependant, l 'analyse a révélé l'importance de la contribution des pertes de Motru Sec dans l 'alimentation du système karstique. Stiuca, E. Ilinca, H. Pleistocene mammals (Rodentia) from Movile Cave (Romania). pp. 157-162. The excavations undertaken in the Movile Cave (Mangalia, Southern Dobrogea) yielded a vertebrate fauna containing several species of rodents characteristic of a dry open environment (Sicista subtilis, Lagurus lagurus thracicus, Eolagurus luteus axshaenicus) in association with species indicative of grassland with shrubs (Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus cf. epiroticus). A marshy facies was also present as shown by fish and amphibian remains. The vertebrate species recognised so far are small enough to have fallen prey to predatory birds. The occurrence of fossil remains in the sediments accumulated in the Main Gallery is a strong evidence that the cave, isolated at present, was in communication with the outside environment during certain time intervals. Judging from the evolutionary stage of the rodent species present, the faunal assemblage can be correlated with a late phase of the last glacial cycle (Würmian/Vistulian) which should be situated within the isotopic stage 2 of deep sea cores (24 to 12 kyr BP). Radulescu, C. Samson, P., M. On some Middle and Late Pleistocene rare small mammal elements from the karst deposits of central Dobrogea (Romania). pp. 163-174. Fossiliferous karst deposits located in the Jurassic limestones of Central Dobrogea yielded micromammalian assemblages belonging to the Middle and Late Pleistocene. Pleistocene climatic fluctuations registered for this area influenced the peculiar aspects of the fauna containing various amounts of elements with eastern European and central Asiatic affinities. Some rare species such as Visternomys cortezi (beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, "Cromerian complex"), Alactagulus cf. acontion, Ellobius cf. talpinus (penultimate glacial cycle, Rissian/Saalian) and Scirtopoda telum (end of the last glacial cycle, Würmian/Vistulian) are presented and discussed. In addition, other elements showing Aegean and Anatolian relationships are also commented (Allactaga orghidani, Rattus casimcensis, Microtus guentheri group characteristic of the Gura Dobrogei-2 phase, late Cromerian or post-Cromerian in age). Three new taxa are described: Alticola (s.1.) remaxi n. sp. from the Gura Dobrogei-5 rock-shelter (uncertain phase within the first half of the Middle Pleistocene), Ellobius calabaei n. sp. from Pestera Liliecilor (Bats Cave) at Gura Dobrogei (Gura Dobrogei-2 phase) and Microtus guentheri vistierensis n. ssp. from the upper layers of the Gura Dobrogei-4 rock-shelter (penultimate glacial cycle). Short Notes Lascu, C. Split stalactites. pp. 175-178. Paunescu, A.-C. Précisions sur les Arvicola terrestris (Linnæus) (Rodentia, Mammalia) du dernier cycle glaciaire de Roumanie. pp. 179-182 Open Access - Permission by Publisher Vol. 8 (1995) See Extended description for more information.


Emil Racovita Institute of Speleology





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