Quantitative groundwater estimation of Izhora Plateau, Russian Federation using thermodynamic and kinetic methods for carbonate rock interaction in identified karst terrain


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January 2017


Karst formations are often responsible for the decay of building foundations and road infrastructure. Three conditions are required for the development of karst: porous or fractured rock subject to water filtration, water dissolving rock, and conditions for water exchange (saturated ions prompting water outflow and inflow of new aggressive water for soluble rock). Individual estimation of rock masses which dissolve in an aeration zone and in an unconfined aquifer is an advanced feature for developing karst protection. This article describes modified algorithms of thermodynamic and kinetic calculations for the interactions of groundwater and carbonate rock based on investigations conducted on the karst terrain of the Izhora Plateau, located in the northwest of the Russian Federation. The upper part of the Izhora Plateau consists of Ordovician carbonate rocks (limestone), in which karst has developed. Karst sinkholes emerge on the Izhora Plateau in quantities of 100–300 each year. Groundwater and infiltration waters were sampled to determine chemical composition in different locations of the Izhora Plateau. An estimation of the groundwater reserves for the territory of the Izhora Plateau (2200 km2; size from North to South is 55 km; East to West 40 km) has never been carried out employing carbonate rock interactions through thermodynamic and kinetic methods. Chemical composition of groundwater and infiltration water is a base for thermodynamic calculations and kinetic calculations of interactions between groundwater and infiltration water with rocks and CO2. The result of complex heterogeneous investigations determined that 53% or 1.42 × 108 kg year−1 of carbonate rock in the tested area dissolved in the aeration zone. In the aquifer, the upper part formed an unsaturated layer, which dissolves carbonate rocks. This layer dissolves 47% or 1.24 × 108 kg year−1 of rock. In this work, we also present original methods for arriving at these calculations. These investigations can help in organizing efforts to reduce the q


Carbonates and Evaporites, Vol. 32, no. 3 (2017).


Karst, Rock Dissolution, Kinetic Calculations, Groundwater–Carbona Rock Interactions



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Karst; Rock Dissolution; Kinetic Calculations; Groundwater–Carbona Rock Interactions