6.4 Karst Geomorphology: Sulfur Karst Processes
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Recognition and understanding of the important role of sulfur redox processes in developing karst has grown over the last 25 years with the discovery of remarkable sulfur-rich caves worldwide and advances in geomicrobiology. Recent work has shown that microbes interact with hydrocarbons, calcium sulfate bedrock, magmatic fluids, and sulfide ore minerals to reduce gypsum/anhydrite to calcite, produce hydrogen sulfide and sulfuric acid, convert limestone to gypsum, increase porosity in carbonate bedrocks, precipitate massive sulfur, and deposit Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ores. These processes are most active in the shallow phreatic and vadose-phreatic subsurface, where transitions between aerobic and anaerobic conditions exist.
Artesian, Chemoautotrophic, Gypsum Replacement, Hydrogen Sulfide, Hypogene, Karst, Mississippi Valley Type, Phreatic, Redox, Speleogenesis, Sulfuric Acid, Vadose
Hose, L. D., "6.4 Karst Geomorphology: Sulfur Karst Processes" (2013). KIP Articles. 5.