Shells and ochre in Middle Paleolithic Qafzeh Cave, Israel: indications for modern behavior
Download Full Text
Qafzeh Cave, the burial grounds of several anatomically modern humans, producers of Mousterian industry, yielded archaeological evidence reflecting their modern behavior. Dated to 92 ka BP, the lower layers at the site contained a series of hearths, several human graves, flint artifacts, animal bones, a collection of sea shells, lumps of red ochre, and an incised cortical flake. The marine shells were recovered from layers earlier than most of the graves except for one burial. The shells were collected and brought from the Mediterranean Sea shore some 35 km away, and are complete Glycymeris bivalves, naturally perforated. Several valves bear traces of having been strung, and a few had ochre stains on them.
Shell Beads, Modern Humans, Glycymeris Insubrica
Science, Vol. 56, no. 3 (2009-3).
Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E. and Vandermeersch, Bernard, "Shells and ochre in Middle Paleolithic Qafzeh Cave, Israel: indications for modern behavior" (2009). KIP Articles. 4781.