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Classically, epigene processes (unconfined and gravity driven from surface features) were considered the principal means by which caves and karst features were formed. In recent years, the theory of hypogene speleogenesis (confined and hydrostatic pressure driven, independent of adjacent surfaces) has gained both scientific and public support as a valid, and widespread mechanism for karst development in varied terrains. This has led to a revolution in thought related to karst processes and the broad implications of hypogene speleogenesis throughout North America, especially in Texas. As karst scientists and cavers began to view caves and karst processes in light of potential hypogene processes, many caves that had been previously considered “problematic” in relation to how they formed became more easily explained. Karst science in Texas is now at the forefront of unravelling the complexities of hypogene speleogenesis and delineating the boundaries and variations that exist between the different processes.
Hypogene, Karst, Texas
Stafford, Kevin W.; F, Stephen; and Veni, George, "Hypogene Karst of the Lampasas Cut Plain" (2018). KIP Articles. 2737.