Hydrogeological characteristics of some deep siphonal springs in Serbia and Montenegro karst


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Publication Date

January 2007


In terms of hydrogeological, engineering-geological, and hydrotechnical tapping in karst in relation to ground waters, karst channels, springs and ponors, speleodiving is the only research method which enables direct observation, studying and exact geological mapping of karst channels and caverns. Data collected during speleodiving research contribute considerably to the analysis of karst evolution process in the given region, which is very important in evaluating the depth of karstification and determining the main direction of the groundwater flow. In the past 30 years in Serbia and Montenegro, speleodivers have investigated over 40 siphonal springs, active cave channels and ponors, of which more than 20 are proof of deep siphonal circulation in karstic aquifers. The karstic springs are the most interesting phenomenon from a hydrogeological view point, and their investigations need particular attention. Most of significant karstic springs are on the rims of erosion basins—perimeters of karst poljes, river valleys, sea coasts and contact areas between karst aquifers and hydrogeological barriers. General characteristics of the spring regime are the direct correlation between precipitation and spring discharge. Moreover, the hydrogeological regime of these springs also depends on the size of the catchment area, karstic aquifer retardation capacity, total porosity, as well as lithological and structural characteristics.


Karst, Karstic Spring, Deep Siphonal Spring, Cave Diving, Montenegro, Serbia

Document Type



Environmental Geology, Vol. 51 (2007).