A high-coverage Neandertal genome from Vindija Cave in Croatia
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To date, the only Neandertal genome that has been sequenced to high quality is from an individual found in Southern Siberia. We sequenced the genome of a female Neandertal from ~50,000 years ago from Vindija Cave, Croatia, to ~30-fold genomic coverage. She carried 1.6 differences per 10,000 base pairs between the two copies of her genome, fewer than present-day humans, suggesting that Neandertal populations were of small size. Our analyses indicate that she was more closely related to the Neandertals that mixed with the ancestors of present-day humans living outside of sub-Saharan Africa than the previously sequenced Neandertal from Siberia, allowing 10 to 20% more Neandertal DNA to be identified in present-day humans, including variants involved in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, schizophrenia, and other diseases.
Neanderthal, Neanderthal Genome, Vindija Cave, Croatia
Science, Vol. 358, no. 6363 (2017-11-03).
Prufer, Kay; de Filippo, Cesare; Grote, Steffi; Mafessoni, Fabrizio; Korlevic, Petra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Vernat, Benjamin; Skov, Laurits; Hsieh, Pingshun; Peyregne, Stephane; Reher, David; Hopfe, Charlotte; Nagel, Sarah; Maricic, Tomisalv; Fu, Quiaomei; Theunert, Christoph; Rogers, Rebekah; Skoglunds, Pontus; Chintalapati, Manjusha; Dannermann, Michael; Nelson, Bradley J; Key, Felix M.; Rudan, Pavao; Kucan, Zeljko; Gusic, Ivan; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.; Patterson, Nick; and Reich, David, "A high-coverage Neandertal genome from Vindija Cave in Croatia" (2017). KIP Articles. 2443.