Author Biography

Sabrina Page has degrees in journalism (B.S.) and communication (M.S.). She is completing her certification in Homeland Security from American Military University. Karen Freberg is an assistant professor in strategic communication at the University of Louisville. Her research interests are in social media, public relations, and crisis communications. Freberg's research has been published in various conferences and presentations including Media Psychology Review, Public Relations Review, and Health Communication. MAJ Kristin Saling is an academic instructor in the Department of Systems Engineering at the United States Military Academy. She has degrees in operations research (B.S.), engineering management (M.S.) and systems engineering (M.S.) and an affinity for social network analysis and communication research.




Communication during an emergency or crisis event is essential for emergency responders, the community involved, and those watching on television as well as receiving information via social media from family members, friends or other community members. The evolution of communication during an emergency/crisis event now includes utilizing social media. To better understand this evolution the Emerging Media Crisis Value Model (EMCVM) is used in comparing two emergency events; Hurricane Irene (2011), a natural disaster, and the theater shooting in Aurora, Colorado (2012), a man-made crisis. The EMCVM provides a foundation for future studies focusing on the use of social media, emergency responders at the local, state and national levels are better prepared to educate a community thus, counteracting public uncertainty, fear, while providing timely, accurate information.