Author Biography

Mr. McDougall has held positions as the Senior Inspector for Ports and Marine Facilities at Transport Canada, National Coordinator Security Policy and Projects at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and Compliance Auditor for Fleet Security within the Canadian Coast Guard. In each of these roles, he has provided guidance and advice with respect to Physical Security and Infrastructure Assurance ranging across the local, regional, and strategic levels of government and into the private sector. He has a BMAS from the Royal Military College and a BA from the University of Western Ontario. He also has certifications in Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCI CI P), Antiterrorism (CMAS), and Information Systems Security (CI CI SSP). He currently contributes on a variety of training projects within the Transportation Security community (including as a recognized trainer under the International Maritime Organization’s Train the Trainer program and Transport Canada’s marine security programs) and has contributed on a number of specialized courses, including the Strategic Leadership in Federal Government Security course offered to emerging Departmental Security Officers.



Subject Area Keywords

Development and security, Economics, North America, Stabilization and reconstruction


In North America today, we are about to embark on a significant effort to repair, or even upgrade, many aspects of our infrastructure. Many of these efforts are linked to economic recovery packages. Others are based on sheer need. The challenge for decision makers and planners involves ensuring that scarce economic resources are put to their best use. Understanding the concept of fragility plays a pivotal part in reaching that understanding.Fragility, like many other systems—particularly Information Technology (IT ) systems—works on the concept of subjects and objects. Subjects are those entities that seek to exploit the services (or capacity) offered by the object. Objects, on the other hand, are those entities that deliver some good or service to the overall system. Of course, something may act as the object in one pairing and the subject in another pairing—they are not exclusive in nature.