Author Biography

Anadi is working as a Research Associate at Centre for Air Power Studies (CAPS), New Delhi, India. She is working on a book project titled “Non-Traditional Security Threats in South Asia: Challenges for India”. Her areas of interests are traditional and non-traditional security threats, peace and conflict studies, arms control and disarmament, Indian Foreign Policy and fragile states. She has completed her M.Phil. from Diplomacy and Disarmament division, Centre for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament (CIPOD), School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. She completed her Master’s in Politics with specialization in International Studies from School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. She has also been recipient of Junior Research Fellowship for completing her M.Phil. dissertation.



Subject Area Keywords

Central Asia, China, Democracy and democatization, Foreign policy, Russia


This article delves into the evolution of international norms, focusing on the dynamics within Central Asia as a microcosm of broader global shifts. It begins by elucidating the concept of a "region" in international relations, emphasizing its multifaceted nature, both geographically and culturally, as well as its evolving character in the face of global transformations. The study then delineates the emergence of regionalism, encompassing the historical context of old and new regionalism, with a nuanced understanding of their continuities and distinctions. A pivotal point of analysis is the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), whose genesis and transformation underscore the influence of new regional dynamics. The SCO's role as a tool for soft balancing against external hegemony, particularly that of the United States, is examined, highlighting its emphasis on shared norms that diverge from Western ideologies. The SCO's success in shaping normative preferences within Central Asia, particularly in promoting non-interference, state sovereignty, and stability, is contrasted with the efforts of Western institutions like the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), which prioritize liberal democratic norms. The study concludes by elucidating the implications of these normative contestations in Central Asia for the broader international order.


I express my gratitude to the anonymous reviewers for their meticulous review of my manuscript and the wealth of insightful comments and suggestions provided.