Author Biography

Dr. Devanny is a lecturer in the Department of War Studies at King’s College London. His research focuses on cyber strategy, particularly offensive cyber operations. He is an affiliate of the King's Brazil Institute and a member of the King's Cyber Security Research Group.

Dr. Goldoni is a Professor in the Postgraduate Program in Military Science at the Brazilian Army Command and General Staff College (ECEME). He has a PhD in Political Science (Universidade Federal Fluminense). His research interests include: Military Studies, Defense Studies, Cyber Security and Cyber Defense.

Mr. Medeiros is a Ph.D. Candidate in Military Sciences of the Meira Mattos Institute at the Brazilian Army Command and General Staff College (ECEME). He also holds a Master's degree in Military Sciences at ECEME. His research focuses on the challenges that arise from cyberspace towards the traditional comprehension of strategic and political concepts.



Subject Area Keywords

Cybersecurity, International security, National security, Security studies


Over the last decade, "cyber power" has become an increasingly prominent concept and instrument of national strategy. This article explores the nature of contemporary cyber power, focusing on how states should respond to "cyber uncertainty." Cases of cyber operations against Estonia, Georgia, and Ukraine, as well as cyber operations conducted (and suffered) by the United States, highlight the evolving role of cyber operations as an instrument of statecraft. Given the complexity of cyber forensics and the polluted information environment of the global public sphere, the public diplomacy of coordinated attribution statements cannot be expected to cut through conclusively or uniformly. States must therefore organise themselves effectively to produce and implement coherent cyber strategy, improving their relational cyber power. This should focus on cyber security and resilience, but also including effective cyber diplomacy, and assessment of what sovereign offensive capabilities are desirable and feasible.


The views expressed in this paper represent the personal views of the authors and are not necessarily the views of either King's College London or the Brazilian Army Command and General Staff College (ECEME).