Author Biography

Dr. Pamela Ruiz holds a doctorate in Criminal Justice from John Jay College of Criminal Justice/The Graduate Center, CUNY. She utilized mixed-methods for her dissertation titled, "The Evolution of the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and Barrio 18: Violence, Extortion, and Drug Trafficking in the Northern Triangle of Central America." Dr. Ruiz was a Fulbright Fellow to El Salvador and a Dean K Harrison Fellow to Honduras and Guatemala, she is the recipient of the 2020 Dissertation Award from John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She holds an M.A. in Social Science with a concentration in Demography and Social Analysis and two B.A. degrees, one in Chicano/Latino Studies and another in Cognitive Psychology from the University of California, Irvine.