Author Biography

Professor-Dr Sarah Jane Fox specializes in law and policy. She holds a PhD in law whereby her research related to cross border movements - terrorism and security.

In 2015-16 Sarah was awarded the distinguished Fulbright Commission post-doctoral research scholarship, through the discipline of law, which was also co-supported by Lloyd’s of London.

Sarah’s research also reasons in conflicts and paradoxes – for example, between ‘human rights and security,’ and ‘opportunities and challenges’, where, on the one hand, there remains the opportunity to collaborate and coordinate, yet, on the other hand, there remains limitation set by man-made boundaries.

Sarah has presented her related research findings at various events and conferences – including at the United Nations, Council of Europe and EU/Europol.



Subject Area Keywords

Cybersecurity, Europe and EU, Global trends and risks, History, International law, International security, Law enforcement, North America, Terrorism / counterterrorism, Transportation Security


his year, 2021, marks the 20th anniversary since 9/11, recorded as the ‘day that changed the world.’ Security remains an area where governments and airlines are continuously struggling to stay ahead, but since 9/11 there have been other challenges to the air transport industry – not least Covid-19.

This research primarily critically reviews the actions taken in the aftermath of 9/11 from the US and EU perspective, before consideration is given to the current/present situation, the new, and emerging challenges being faced. The research is undertaken through a legal/policy perspective.

The findings are that internationally and regionally, society is not prepared for another attack and that there remain a number of challenges that stand to impact aviation; ultimately, more collective action is needed to mitigate for such risks going forward.




This is fully my own work and research. However, as always I would like to extend my appreciation to DePaul University in Chicago - who hosted me during my Fulbright year (2015/2016).