Author Biography

Mr. Derek Reinhold is a Department of Defense civilian with fifteen years of experience as an all-source intelligence analyst and foreign disclosure officer. Mr. Reinhold worked for the United States Marine Corps, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Joint Staff, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Mr. Reinhold received his BA in Intelligence Studies, with a concentration in analysis from American Military University. Currently he is working on an MA in Intelligence Studies, with a concentration in Intelligence Operations at American Military University.

Dr. Charles M. Russo, IFPC, is a full-time instructor with the College of Safety and Emergency Services at Columbia Southern University, a part-time instructor with the College of Security and Global Studies at American Military University, and teaches in the Intelligence Studies program. He also taught at National American University and served as the Dean of the Intelligence Management program. Dr. Russo has over three decades of national security and criminal justice experience as an Intelligence Analyst with the US Intelligence Community, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Homeland Security, Defense Intelligence Agency, and the US Navy. Dr. Russo has a BA in Intelligence Studies with a concentration in Analysis from American Military University, an MA in Intelligence Studies with a concentration in Collections, and holds a PhD in Public Safety, with a specialization in Criminal Justice, from Capella University.

Dr. Beth Eisenfeld is an adjunct faculty member at American Military University and National American University. She teaches or taught numerous online doctoral, master’s, and bachelor’s classes over the last 10 years. Dr. Eisenfeld holds a Doctorate in Strategic Security from the Henley-Putnam School of Strategic Security at National American University. She earned a Master’s degree from the University of Michigan and a Bachelor’s degree from Michigan State University. Dr. Eisenfeld also earned a Certificate in Computer Science from DePaul University, a Graduate Certificate in Intelligence Analysis from American Military University, and a Higher Education Teaching Certificate from Harvard’s Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning.



Subject Area Keywords

Intelligence analysis, Intelligence studies/education


Analytical standards and its impact is a topic compelling the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) toward a discipline of proficiency and structure comparable to other professional fields is an evolutionary process. Following the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Community Directives (ICDs) became the feature through which guidance and a consensus on a topic became methods of aligning entities within the IC. The research questions about the usefulness of ODNI’s ICDs on the individual analyst and IC member agencies as the intelligence profession emerges are intriguing. Therefore, practitioners should consider several approaches and criteria to evaluate analytical standards. This article outlines methods for determining the analytical standards and the impact standards creation has had on intelligence analysis, furthering the professional development of the discipline through a qualitative methodology using a descriptive and explanatory approach based on an organizational theory foundation. Using multiple case studies and a structured approach evidence supports the creation of standards while examining the various professional structures that can provide guidance.


The views and opinions expressed are the author(s) and not that of any U.S. government agency.