Author Biography

Javier Jordan is Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science at the University of Granada, Spain. He is a Director of the Master in Strategic Studies and International Security at the University of Granada. He has been visiting researcher in the Center of International Studies at the University of Oxford, the European Institute of the London School of Economics, Institute of International Politics of the King’s College of London, and the Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.



Subject Area Keywords

Defense policy, International relations, Strategy


Drawing on existing literature, this research offers a theoretical delineation of the gray zone conflict, that is, conflict below the threshold of armed conflict. It begins by identifying the characteristic features attributed to the gray zone to propose a definition of the concept. It then situates gray zone conflict within the framework of the International Relations theory of Realism before setting out the main lines of strategic action used. Lastly, it examines the various levels of escalation that can arise in conflict of this nature.


The author declare no conflict of interest in this article


This article has been funded by the Spanish Agency for Research project PID2019-108036GB-100/AEI/10.1339/501100011033