Author Biography

Dr. Paola A Spadaro is a lecturer in Intelligence subjects at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, as well as an Independent Researcher interested on the evolution of terrorism. She is currently focused in the intersections between terrorism and organized crime, as well as on the advancement of terrorism threats linked to an increasingly changing climate.

Dr. Spadaro attained her PhD in Neurosciences (Genetics and Behaviour) at The University of Queensland, Australia, with a dissertation exposing the evidence of non-coding RNAs as drivers of behavioural changes. She later completed a Masters of Arts in Intelligence Analysis at Charles Sturt University, Australia, as well as an Executive Certificate in Counter Terrorism Studies, Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy, ICD, Herzliya, Israel. She also holds a Bachelor Honours in Sciences (Australia) and a Bachelor of Laws (Argentina).



Subject Area Keywords

Global trends and risks, Natural resources and security, Terrorism / counterterrorism


The footprint of human advancement has accelerated a climate variability with no precedents, further driving devastating natural and social events. The decrease in basic resources like water, has already been identified as a driver of violent conflicts, which have given way to the strengthening of terrorist organizations that used the environment as a tool of coercion. The damage caused to the earth’s ecosystem has additionally raised a wave of defensive activism that was initially considered as eco-terrorism. While the original eco-movements had not induced fatalities, recent extremist organizations are showing a more violent anti-progress and pro-environment agenda. Added to these, the response of the states against environmental activism initiatives, has spiked some concerns over the repression of civil liberties, which may have the potential to fuel the angering of extreme individuals, who can be prompted to take radicalized action. Using open source data, this article shows that environmental terrorism represents an increasing security threat, which in the future, might be worsened by the individual radicalization of marginalized environmental extremists.


I declare that this manuscript is submitted independently and only reflects my independent research and views. I further declare that I am the sole author of this manuscript, which was not submitted before in any other journal, and that I have no conflict of interest with third parties, nor any funding to declare.


I wish to thank Ms Gabriela L. Minervini for contributing with the revision and editing of the manuscript.

Figure 1_Population Trends and Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Temperature Change.png (95 kB)
Figure 1: Population Trends and Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Temperature Change

Figure 2_Water Resources and Related Conflicts.jpg (81 kB)
Figure 2: Water Resources and Related Conflicts

Figure 3_Eco-Terrorism Movement.png (40 kB)
Figure 3: Eco-Terrorism Movements