Author Biography

Jack is a recent graduate of George Washington University where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science with a minor in computer science. He took particular interest in the growing role of technology in the development and administration of policy both domestically and internationally. Space exploration emerged as a significant subject in Jack's research efforts throughout his undergraduate career. Specifically, Jack focused on the foundational role of reusable spacecraft in the renewal of American space travel and the future exploration of deep space. He has dedicated much of his research to the relationship between government-run space agencies and private space companies as nations seek to return to the Moon and land on Mars. While much of his focus remains on space exploration, Jack is inspired by the rapid technological developments on earth, and aims to incorporate these interests as his law school career begins this fall.



Subject Area Keywords

Foreign policy, History, Science and technology & security, Space and security


The Cold War initiated not only rapid weaponization campaigns within the United States and the Soviet Union, but launched a space race between the ideological opponents. The Soviet Union claimed an early victory by becoming the first nation to launch a satellite into space. Despite the United States' rough start, the country triumphed during its Apollo Program to become the leader in space. Treaties and international norms emerged throughout this time to prevent these technologically raging nations from weaponizing the expansive environment of outer space, but the resulting protections against national ownership of space limited incentives for future deep space travel. As the U.S. Space Shuttle program came to an end in 2011, the United States forfeit its capabilities to transport humans to the International Space Station. This apparent abandonment of outer space, however, began to reveal the seminal role of the commercial space industry and its revolutionary technologies. This article traces the transition from the Cold War-era space race to today’s robust public-private expansion into space. It highlights the foundational importance of international cooperation to protect the interests of private companies, and presents a model of cooperative succession between space agencies and companies to send humans to Mars.


I thank Professor Steven Knapp for his continual support, constant conversation and encouragement. And for his comments and correspondence, I thank Professor John J. Klein.