Author Biography

Yusef Karimi has a Ph.D in counseling from Allameh Tabatabi’e University, Tehran, Iran. His research focuses on psychological bases of religious radicalism and psychological roots of terrorism in the Middle East. His dissertation was a psychological phenomenology of tendency toward Salafism in Iran.

Alexandra Cimbura, currently studies psychology at the University of Ottawa, pursuing a career in forensic psychology.

Wagdy Loza, Ph.D., is an Adjunct Assistant Professor (Psychiatry, Queen’s University) and ex. Adjunct Professor (Psychology, Carleton University). He has more than 40 years of experience in the Correctional field. He has more than 45 publications in the areas of predicting offender’s violent/nonviolent recidivism and extremism/terrorism.



Subject Area Keywords

Ideology, Radicalization, Terrorism / counterterrorism, Violent extremism


This article investigates the prevalence of the extreme Middle Eastern ideologies among Iranians. Using the Assessment and Treatment of Radicalization Scale (ATRS) on a sample of Iranian participants, the authors collected from 138 Iranian Muslims. The authors compared this data with data previously collected from other parts of the world that included Atheists, Christians, and Muslims. The ATRS is a scale for measuring quantitatively Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas as reported in the literature. Similar, to previous results, the current results indicated that Iranian Muslims scored significantly higher than the sampled Christians and Atheists. However, the score of total ATRS and its subscale for Muslims of Iran was significantly less than from Muslims in other parts of the world.


The authors wish to express their appreciation to the participants who were involved in this study. The opinions expressed are those of the author and do not represent the views of any individual or institution.