Author Biography

Dr. Agnes Hankiss is a psychologist, writer, and honorary professor of the Counterterrorism Department of the National Security Institute at the National University of Public Service. She is the founder and director of the Hamvas Institute for Cultural and Security Studies at Budapest, which, in its research and publications in the last 17 years, has been focusing on the functioning of the communist State Security services. She was a member of the European Parliament (2009-2014) as a representative of the EPP, Vice-Chair, Committee on Petitions, Member of the Committee on Internal and Legal Affairs, Member of the Subcommittee on Security and Defense, Member of Special Committee on Organized Crime, and Member of the Interparliamentary Delegations for Relations with the US and Israel. Her main fields of work in the EP were the Internal Security Strategy of the EU, Terrorism and Counterterrorism, the EU’s CBRN action plan, and Cyber Security.



Subject Area Keywords

Al-Qaida, Asymmetric warfare, Counterterrorism, Europe and EU, Terrorism / counterterrorism


The paper attempts to demonstrate that all of the perpetrators of the grave terrorist attacks in Europe in the recent years have been connected—by one or maximum two links—to the center and leadership of ISIS in Syria, from whom they received ideological, logistical and financial support—thus contradicting the popular theory of lone wolves. The author reaches the conclusion that in many cases addressing potential lone radicals on Jihadist forums before the attacks was nothing else but a special form of Psyop, with the goal of disrupting counterrorism efforts and spreading fear in societies.


This article was originally published in Hungarian in the journal Arc és Álarc [Face and Mask], periodical of Hamvas Institute, in the 2017 Fall/Winter issue. Abstracts available at hamvasintezet.hu.