The purpose of this study was to determine differences in students’ perceived benefits of chess by gender and age after being exposed to chess during instruction for an entire academic year as part of a Chess in Schools initiative in a southeastern state of the United States. Data were collected during the 2017–201 8 academic year. The sample consisted of 1,286 students across elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected using a retrospective pretest survey. Seven constructs of the students’ perceptions were generated (increased enjoyment of mathematics, improvement in academic self-efficacy, improvement in collaborative skills, improvement in organizational skills, enjoyment of chess, confidence in chess playing ability, and increased engagement in learning), and all had high reliability coefficients. Data were analyzed using a two-way multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that elementary students consistently tended to have higher ratings of perceived benefits than middle and high school students across all constructs. The differences between middle and high school students were low and not statistically significant.


students’ perceptions of chess, chess in school, cognitive impacts of chess, chess in education



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.