Snyder’s hope theory depicts hope, through the frame of positive psychology, as a cognitive construct with the perceived sense of goal-directed, pathways, and agency thinking (Snyder et al., 1991). Hope levels have been measured in various countries; however, no research to date focused on Haitians. This study, conducted in Petit-Goâve, Haiti, addressed this gap by investigating hope, pathway, and agency levels derived from 135 Haitian-Kreyol adult literacy course participants. This manuscript reports scores of illiterate Haitians’ hope levels utilizing Snyder’s Adult Hope Dispositional Scale; the scores are explained by Snyder’s hope theory taking Haitian cultural and social landscapes into account. Despite the challenging environment and illiterate conditions, Haitian participants reported just below average hope levels, average pathway levels, and low agency levels. These findings suggested this population garnered hope in their everyday lives, despite difficult obstacles.


hope, Snyder’s hope theory, adult illiteracy, Haiti

ORCID Identifiers

Donita Grissom: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7030-2731

Joyce Nutta: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5788-6362

Edwidge Crevecoeur-Bryant: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4844-4471

Sherron Killingsworth Roberts: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1340-4333



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Creative Commons License
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