The purpose of this article is to examine social cognitive theory and social comparison theory, and how they are integrated to propose that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC) and performance. Furthermore, the article supports the need for development and examination of the effects of educational leadership and teacher self-efficacy. That is, to determine if school leadership has an effect on teacher self-efficacy, and if teacher self-efficacy has an effect on student achievement. The preliminary conceptual model developed within the article includes insightful research questions to be considered for impending future studies. The authors hope this line of research will investigate the extent to which teacher self-efficacy is responsible for behavior outcomes associated with LMXSC, as well as the effect school leadership and teacher self-efficacy brings to this process.


ethical leadership, social cognitive theory, social comparison theory



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.