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pen aquaculture, water quality, remote sensing, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP)

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Pen aquaculture is the main form of aquaculture in some shallow lakes in eastern China. It is valuable to map the spatiotemporal changes of pen aquaculture in eutrophic lakes to assess its effect on water quality, thereby helping the relevant decision-making agencies to manage the water quality (WQ) of lakes. In this study, an automatic approach for extracting the pen aquaculture area was developed based on Landsat data. The approach integrates five algorithms, including grey transformation, discrete wavelet transform, fast Fourier transform, singular value decomposition and k-nearest neighbor classification. It was successfully applied in the automatic mapping of the pen aquaculture areas in Lake Yangcheng from 1990 to 2016. The overall accuracies were greater than 92%. The result indicted that the practice of pen aquaculture experienced five stages, with the general area increasing in the beginning and decreasing by the end of the last stage. Meanwhile, the changes of nine WQ parameters observed from 2000 to 2016, such as ammonia (NH3-N), pH, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemiluminescence detection of permanganate index (CODMn), Secchi disk depth (SDD) and dissolved oxygen (DO), were analyzed in the lake sectors of Lake Yangcheng, and then their relationships were explored with the percentage of pen aquaculture area. The result suggested that the percentage of pen aquaculture area exhibits significantly positive correlations with NH3-N, TN, TP, chlorophyll a, BOD and CODMn, but significantly negative correlations with SDD and DO. The experimental results may offer an important implication for managing similar shallow lakes with pen aquaculture expansion and water pollution problems.

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Remote Sensing, v. 12, issue 11, art. 1866