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landscape pattern, ecological risk assessment, spatial analysis, coastal zone, risk transfer matrix

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Analyzing evolution characteristics of landscape ecological risk patterns would help establish ecological risk early warning mechanism, reduce the ecological risk probability and promote coastal landscape pattern optimization. In this study, landscape pattern indices were first calculated by using multitemporal Landsat TM images acquired in years 1990, 2000 and 2010, then landscape ecological risk pattern evolution models and the spatiotemporal evolutions of ecological risk patterns of coastal zones in Zhejiang province, China were constructed and analyzed. The results demonstrate that (1) greater changes have taken place in landscape structures during the two decades, and (2) the areas of cropland, sea, woodland and water surface have decreased significantly, while the areas of built-up land, unused land and aquaculture land have increased. In 1990, coastal landscapes were mainly occupied by extremely low and low ecological risk areas. However, by 2010, the low ecological risk area apparently decreased compared to that in 1990, while extremely high and high ecological risk areas increased significantly, occupying spatial regions where originally the extremely low and low ecological risk zones located. Transition rates of ecological risk grades in the second ten years (2000–2010) were significantly lower than in the first ten years (1990–2000). The result suggests that people who originally urged to accelerate coastal landscape exploitation and development have started to concern the ecological environment protection and to pursue a mode that economic development and ecological protection are synchronously conducted.

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Sustainability, v. 9, issue 4, art. 584